The Engineer in History

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Preface[edit | edit source]

The Engineer in History (HPS283) is a humanities elective offered by The Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology (IHPST) at University of Toronto. This course presents an extended personal argument that engineers in the modern world are the most important social category of the modern world in ways that go well beyond the fact that they make things and solve technical puzzles. A look at the history of the profession is used to support this argument. Examining the role engineers have played in history up to and including the present will illuminate the complex links that exist between technology and society. Topics that are discussed includes the birth of engineering as a profession, conceptions of society that have been moulded or influenced by engineers, the image that society has had of them, and their place in the social structure.

The contents presented are delivered verbally by Mr. Janis Langins, on his last year as professor before his retirement. He is also the author of Conserving the Enlightenment, French Military Engineering from Vauban to the Revolution published by MIT Press.


ERTW, an Opinion - See discussion page[edit | edit source]

-Engineers do not rule the world -Many engineers climb to high positions in society and engineering is left behind them -The creators and operators of technology have little say in how it is ran

Why Don’t ERTW?[edit | edit source]

-What Veblen saw as revolutionary tendencies among engineers was really an interest in status -Noble: Engineers were co-opted by capitalism

Should Engineers Rule the World?[edit | edit source]

-Maybe-There are not many engineers across non-violent Islamic groups and there are many engineers across violent Islamic groups -75% of chemical engineers voted for the Republican Party (Conservatives) -Layton suggests many engineers came from the upper lower close and lower middle class, engineering presented a way for these people to advance within society (especially in Islamic countries, some joined extremist groups in anger)

Current Challenges of World[edit | edit source]

-Value of a person is seen in purely economic terms, some CEOs are thinking of this value dysfunction -Polarization Wealth = Economic Inequality Increasing -Less loyalty to a company then previously in history -Environmental Degradation -Rise of international tensions

What can engineers should do? -Asset themselves into the business world -Defend the ideals of workmanship, pride in work -Get involved in democratic politics and should rule the world provided: - Humility is employed, dangerous minds think they are always right - Engineers for the world

Engineers in Antiquity[edit | edit source]

The Concept of an Engineer[edit | edit source]

-A. The word did not exist in ancient languages - Not in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, or Rome -B. A person that could be called an engineer exists from the beginnings of civilization - Anyone in a typically historical responsible, technical, high position that requires the organization of thought is an engineer

Civilization & Engineering[edit | edit source]

A. From hunting to growing food[edit | edit source]

-Agriculture was just as prone to issues as hunting, droughts etc

B. Cities and engineers come into being simultaneously[edit | edit source]

-Civilized people live in cities and where it all happens -Gordan Childe (can’t be sure from recording): worked on the evolution of the city and agriculture evolution, after 6000BC many innovations occurred which would grow into great technologies -We see people using different tools such as the plow -People start domesticating animals which we could eat and farm with -We see the sail as a technology, harnessing wind power, use to solely rely on human work and muscle -3000 BC we see the wheel, by Mesopotomia -1650 BC wheel comes to Egypt -Started using chariots -Wine, fermentation started being produced -The production of copper, bronze, bricks, and the arch (not -The Solar Calendar -Writing -Numerial notation -Using irrigation to water your crops -The period with all these above technologies is typically around 2600 BC (just an estimate) -Gordan Childe: argues the period following 2600 BC -600 BC, things start to slow down, technological stagnation, but technologies do appear, aqueducts, decimal notation, alphabetic script, iron smelting (much more complex than copper or bronze) -All these technologies set the ground work for cities

C. From Neolithic Village to Ancient City[edit | edit source]

-Mumford: aggressive people such as hunters gathered small villages and forced them to live in cities -In Turkey archaeology suggests people that were dispersed come together for religion to praise deities in temples - Prof’s opinion: a natural evolution, increasing size of agricultural village snowballed into cities -Differences between cities and villages: have a hierarchy in cities, royalty, priesthood, and people below them serve them, equality disperses -Differences between cities and villages: have specialization of technology, people who have specialized crafts, not jack of all trades, -Differences: organized warfare, violence increased -Differences: attempt to control the natural environment in the form of irrigation, hydraulic civilizations are the civilizations of the Middle East, Oriential Dysphitism (Dictator): Egypt and Mesoptomia required irrigation to survive, irrigation requires engineering, discipline, social control for a social project which requires authoritarian rule -Differences: much more formal systems of religion, in Egypt Pharoah is a god, in Mesopotamia a king could be a god or an alliance with God, political power goes hand in hand with religious power at the beginning of cities

Engineering in the Ancient Middle East[edit | edit source]

A. Engineering Tasks[edit | edit source]

-Irrigation and monumental architecture -4th millennium BC, Mesopotamia, the Ziggurats, people congregate for their religion at these monumental architectures -The Pyramid Building period: 2.5 million metres cubed, the Great Pyramid of Giza -Are able to transport huge statues of a King, not via wheels but dragging, just human muscle, many people pulling, large social organization, engineer can be considered the one that whips people -Chinese Grand Canal: North South Canal, project spanned 1000 years and provided food for North of China -Tied China together, went from decentralized state to a centralized one -Why did they spend time in making monumental architectures? There to impress, to overawe -Big cities were often the subject of attack by barbarians or other cities, had to build complex structures to defend these cities and attack these cities

B. Engineering personnel[edit | edit source]

-Aristrocrat by the name of Impotep, middle of the 3rd millennium, creator of the first pyramid, chancellor of King of Egypt, doctor, administrator of Great palace, high priest of hellopolas, chief sculptor, quite a list of titles, most important is he was incharge, attempted to give rational explanations of disease, disease could be cured by national methods, not seem to been royal -People were organized to do work by engineers such as Impotep

Engineers in the Hellenic and Hellenistic World[edit | edit source]

-Hellenic World from: 800 BC to 320 BC -Hellenic is in Greece -Hellenistic is the Middle East conquered by Alexandre (derived from Hellenic culture) -A. Continuation of the engineering tasks of the earlier period -B. The mechanical and liberal arts -Aristotle did not have respect for people that made things -Mechanics did useful things, but did not have any status -If you were forced to work, it was not something you could be proud of -The mechanical people are looked down upon: craftsmen, but do not have social status, mechanics are looked as deceptive people and go against nature which is what Greeks praised -The liberal is seen as people who are not forced to work full time, people who partook in philosophy, literature are superior, Mechanics are socially inferior -Even in modern times, Artsies look at engineers as slobs -Greek: Small minority at the top were truly free, the others craftsmen were not free and were looked down upon caused they worked for other people -The upper class dealt with the arts, philosophy etc -Thought to improve productivity = driving slaves -The Hellenistic Period ends at 31 BC -Came up with interesting period -Made an initial catapult, siphons -First slot machine, pay money that activates pulleys to open a temple door (if someone wanted to go and pray) -Make gadgets toys which impress people

Roman Engineers[edit | edit source]

-Built a bridge over the Rhine in Gallic wars to show a demonstration of power in 3 days -Romans built huge aqueducts and had an abundant supply of water

A. Vitruvius On Architecture[edit | edit source]

- Vitruvius; jack of all trades, supervises building, doctor etc -First engineer is Vitruvius, Vitruvian Engineer, not much about him but his book was made 31 BC -Augustus finds this 200 year peace of Rome

B. The Vitruvian Engineer[edit | edit source]

-Marcus Vitruvius Paolio addresses Lady Octavia in a letter mentions he worked for Julius Caesar, Augustus in the beginning of book -Thoughts in Renaissance were Vitruvius was a fake due to bad Latin, but a trait such as Bad Latin revealed he was an engineer -Roman engineers must know geometry, know much history, know natural philosophy, understand music, some knowledge of medicine, know lawyers, be familiar with astronomy -Natural philosophy meant what they call science these days -Must know music for acoustic point -If had to make a sundial were required to know astronomy -Vitruvius says it’s impossible to know all these things, but must be competent in all subjects -Vitruvius feels he is a manager that supervises these constructs because he is a jack of all trades but specialized craftsmen can do it better

C. Contents of Vitruvius's De Architectura ca. 25 BCE.[edit | edit source]

-Vitruvius dedicated his book to Lady Octavia -Vitruvius wrote a book on what materials should be used -Vitruvius makes a section on civil engineering but doesn’t call it that: temples, theatres, and a section of individual houses, describes where a house should be built -Vitruvius speaks on some mechanical engineering but doesn’t call it that: hydraulic water, water wheels, how to build aqueducts, and build wells (here is where medicine comes in, makes sure water is clean) -Vitruvius spoke of military machines

The Medieval Master Mason and the Ingeniator[edit | edit source]

Some characteristics of the Medieval Period (500 AD to 1500 AD)[edit | edit source]

- The Roman Empire collapses and we are into a period called the Middle Ages of cathedral builders -Master Masons and fascination with Ingeniator and mechanics (were called Architects before) -In European history, until recently, were considered backwards to humanity’s growth, burning of people, the age before was considered superior, Middle Ages were considered barbaric and afterwards people felt they need to progress from that -People argued back Classical Antiquity was not all that great, Romans borrowed from previous cultures, Middle Ages were much more dynamic, -Lynn White: rehabilitated the Middle Ages reputation

A. A new Energy regime[edit | edit source]

-Learned new various ways to harness energy such as water wheels, grinds grain, in Antiquity (only 10%-30% efficiency) -In Medieval Times they developed the water wheel and appeared all over Europe, becomes the background setting -In Antiquity, water wheel primarily used to grind grain -But in Middle Ages waterwheel was developed with more gears for more uses, saw wood, use it to process ore, preparing cloth, driving the bellows of blast furnaces, crushing bark, apply the waterwheel to many things, diversification of functions

B. New attitudes to human labour[edit | edit source]

-The idea of labour was considered inferior -If you were a laborer (mechanic) you deserved to be one, if you did not work you were an elite -Gradually changes through the Middle Age (but not totally, and some persisted to this day such as being a garbage picker) -A scholar devised traits into 7 parts during the Medieval Period: architecture, warfare (belonged to liberal arts before due to being carried out by ruling class), masonry, trade & commerce, cooking, blacksmithing & metallurgy, navigation (traits ordained for the improvement of humanity)

C. New Attitudes to Nature[edit | edit source]

- Aristotle was the one who said Nature is good and does nothing in vein, and the perfect thing is for a thing to occur is the natural way, anti-technologists today argue technology has corrupted nature -It is sacriligeous to change nature and is futile up to the Middle Ages -Medievals start to believe humans can exploit nature for their own purposes, cut down trees without thinking twice, the desacrilization of certain tasks - Rise of manorialism, the organization of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to nobles, and feudalism, whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent land and manors - Kings became the heads of centralized nations, reducing crime and violence - The function of work was to meet the physical needs of ones family and community, and to avoid idleness which was deemed a sin - It was the duty of a worker to remain in his class, passing on his family work from father to son - Work was part of the economic structure of human society, an act seen as an order by God. - Late medieval period: many rural revolts due to famine, plague and wars

Achievements of the cathedral builders in Europe[edit | edit source]

A. The "cathedral crusade" 1050-1350[edit | edit source]

-Janpel mentions more than 500 cathedrals were built during this period -More stone was harvested than in any other period -The Giza Pyramid was the tallest structure up until one of the Cathedrals beat this record -Had immense height and beauty, but the interesting thing as well was that their size relative to the towns, Cathedrals can hold more people than the entire village -The economic effort into building a Cathedral is surprising giving the desacrilization of the Middle Ages -Cathedrals took up to 100 years to build

B. Some myths about the cathedrals[edit | edit source]

-The first myth amenity of the architects: Wrong, we actually do have records of the people who were there and signed contracts, these Masons were driven to get self-respect -Collective Building By Non Specialists: Wrong, It was not enthusiasm of non specialists which made these, but councils which commissioned the teams of Masons, negotiated with Masons, and paid the Masons well, Small elite of specialists built these cathedrals - Master Masons were illiterate and not well educated: Wrong, well paid professionals, who often drew sketches of their design, and showed signs of pride in a race for status, gave themselves titles such as Master and Doctor

The Master Masons and the Guild System[edit | edit source]

A. The guilds of the Middle Ages[edit | edit source]

-Guilds: like unions, produced more economically, (guilds of blacksmiths, guilds of goldsmiths) -Traditionally there was a saint who was a patron of the guild, guild members would get together to worship saint on their day -Would take care of people’s funeral costs, man’s wife, etc (social benefits) -Not everyone could enter a guild, and came in as an apprentice at a young age -Signed a contract and would more so sell your soul to the guild -An apprentice would submit a masterpiece, the guild masters would accept and you would go beyond apprentice -A guild guaranteed quality, so if you got something from a guild it would be the best -Hallmark: a stamp in which the guild approved of quality -Guild were arrogant and thought they knew everything -Guild was very exclusive, and if you came up with a better idea than the guild, they would have some legal power to crack down on you

B. The guilds of masons[edit | edit source]

-The Guilds of the Masons: Mason guilds were not local, not restricted, one guild of Masons for all of England, four in Germany, had an open attitude

C. The Itinerant Engineer: Villard de Honnecourt[edit | edit source]

-The Itinerant Engineer: Villard de Honnecourt: a personality, branches beyond to building churches and is more than a mason, his notebook survived (70%), worked in France, Switzerland, and even Hungary, notable for sketchbooks which survived of cathedrals, picture of a water power saw, his drawings are horrible, no dimensions, military equipment (a trebuchet), perpetual motion machine

D. The Transmission of a Tradition[edit | edit source]

The Fascination with mechanical devices and Mechanism[edit | edit source]

====A. The development of water wheels and hydraulic technology====

B. Gearing and the increasing reliance on machinery[edit | edit source]

Appearance of the Ingeniator and the Engineer[edit | edit source]

A. Etymologies and meanings of the word “engineer”.[edit | edit source]

-Etymologies and meanings of the word “engineer” -Ingeniator – comes from ingenium, whose root goes into ingenuity -Engine (had a bad connation, “uses an engine to get his way”), means a wit and not a good wit, Often said “Satan was a sly engineer” -Engineer: One who plots, designs, and creates -From Shakespeare Hamlet the engineer hoist on his petard (his own design backfires) -A petard is something you fill with gunpowder, ignite it, to get in the door, Shakespeare is now saying it blows him not the door -Engineer example: seduce a lady, “his tongue was engineered”, the engineer attempted to undermine her heart but failed, (undermine means: dig under the city wall and blow it up) -Parkery engineering, and trickier in elections -Canteburry Tales: 3 kinds of knowledge: memory, engine: creativity & ingenuity , intellect -1393: The women were a great engine -15th century: I am the son who beguiled my mom’s engine (tricked her) -Greeks believed people should not attempt to surpass nature, it was immoral, and second it was pointless because you can never do so -Trick nature, defying nature is bad

B. Master Masons and Engineers[edit | edit source]

-Master Masons and Engineers: Engineers produce civil architecture, military architecture, artillery -Middle of 16th century: everywhere, and are considered military engineers, masters of trickery

The Artist Engineer of the Renaissance[edit | edit source]

Some important characteristics of the Renaissance (16th century begins)[edit | edit source]

-The name implies we were dead in the Middle Ages, the Dark Ages, which was an age of superstition and lack of creativity

A. Explicit rejection of the immediate past[edit | edit source]

-Turn their backs on tradition, they are modern, they are new, they will be doing new and exciting things -Most Renaissances were short lived, this one endured

B. Looking back to classical Antiquity[edit | edit source]

-Modern people looked on this as superior to the Middle Ages, regarded Antiquity as ages of true civilizations, but Middle Ages was a step back for humanity, admire Greece and Rome, try to imitate it -Certain snobiness among scholars to develop their Latin -Importance of modern times, but looking backwards, try to write things in Latin and Greek -Some scholars argue Vitruvius was not a Roman but a Renaissance guy trying to pass off as a Roman, not true, he was a Roman -Instead of going back to ancient thinking liberal arts are better than mechanic arts, in doing so it makes them revisit Science and rediscovered ancient scientific texts, and place an emphasis on work such as that done by Aristotle and work is carried out and improved -Martin Luther (1483): In Germany, founder of Protestanism, there were some heretics who did not accept some teachings by church but were generally gotten rid of, the difference with Luther is the printing press revolution occurred before him and Martin Luther’s book spread so he could not be burnt with his books, Martin Luther translates the bible for people to read themselves rather than preachers telling you what is said, Martin Luther states go back to basics, read the bible, don’t let preachers reguiritate it for you -Copernicus: revives the Heliocentric system of technology, everything revolves around the Sun which was something suggested by a not well-known scholar in the 3rd century BC, slightly heretical, Modern Science is sometimes attributed to the date Copernicus published his book

C. The importance of the individual[edit | edit source]

-The individual finally appears in human history -Less and less people mention people were instruments of God’s will -People start to brag about their accomplishments -Jealousy about achievements -Attempts to compete and be first -The idea of Author comes into effect -The idea of genius, this gift of genius can strike anyone, not just to royals and nobles, demand respect for this role disregarding class they come from, peasants can be smart, genius

D. A new attitude to Nature and new ways of depicting Nature[edit | edit source]

-The old Judeo-Christian license to dominate and control nature: humans are the superior beings on the planet -Renaissance more interested in depicting nature accurately -For the Medievals, the mind and spirit were more important than the flesh (Christ was big, people were small) -In Renaissance, they want to depict landscape and the people within that landscape

E. Politically: the gradual growth of nation states in Europe[edit | edit source]

-Germany and Italy are younger nation states than Canada -England and France became nations quite early to defend themselves against one another -More centralized control -People start to think of themselves as members of a nation -French start to think of themselves of Frenchmen -These regions more powerful militarily, and richer also

Renaissance: The Context[edit | edit source]

A.When and where does it begin?[edit | edit source]

-Difficult to but a date, but on old book shows 29th of May 1453, Turks capture Constantinopole, end of old Roman Empire in the East, texts come back to the West provided literary works for Renaissance -100 year war ends between England and France -European voyages of discovery, 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean -Spanish, English, French started travelling oceans -Natives of North America all came across -A big culture shock with all these events ongoing -Facilitates new ways of thinking -Some would say Italians were way ahead in wealth in culture and art than the Northern countries

The Promethean Revolution during the Renaissance[edit | edit source]

A.Two parallel and bifurcated paths[edit | edit source]

-Prometheus: a demigod who stole fire from the gods, Zeus punished Prometheus by chaining him to a rock where animals would come and eat his liver everyday for eternity (not important) -Promethian Revolution: a stream of thought, and it splits into a road with two paths, on high road you have philosophers and scientists (Isaac Newton would have considered himself a natural philosopher), on bottom you have path also: ordinary artisans, Igeniators in the lower path but a little higher than artisans, Igeniators start talking to natural philosopher and out comes modern science -Natural philosophers: more interested in generalized natural laws, Galileo and Tartaglia (teaches himself to read and is poor, but interested in technical problems which had scientific implications), thus they start talking to one another

The Artist-Engineer of the Renaissance[edit | edit source]

A. Painting becomes much more realistic than it was in the medieval period when the painting was more rudimentary and symbolic[edit | edit source]

- Artists were patronized by wealthy, merchant families (eg. the House of Medici). Artists depended on rich patrons, while the patrons needed money to sustain these geniuses. Wealth was brought in via trading with Asia and other parts of Europe. Hence, money and art went hand in hand. - Giotto di Bondone was credited for being the first to treat a painting as a window into space, but it wasn’t until the demonstrations of architect Filippo Brunelleschi and the subsequent writings of Leon Alberti that perspective was formalized as an artistic technique. - A trend towards realism in arts: painters studied light and shadow to improve the realism in their works. - Da Vinci famously studied the human anatomy - the Vitruvian man - A renewed interest in uncovering the beauty of nature - The use of oil paint and canvas, and stylistic improvements in naturalism in paintings.

B.The intense interest in military affairs[edit | edit source]

-The development of the arquebus, the musket (better firearms), grenade musket with working wheellock mechanisms

C.From technicians to engineers?[edit | edit source]

- Increasing interest in empirical evidence. - The birth of revolutionary scientific concepts such as the scientific method, the importance of mathematics, seeking ways to uncover truths behind natural phenomena, controlled experiments in various fields, the idea of extrapolating data (by Da Vinci) - Innovations in mining, metallurgy - Blast furnace, finery forge, slitting mill (which mechanized the production of iron rods), smelt mill - Crank & connecting rod, printing press, parachute, dry docks, lifting tower, air guns - The engineers of the Renaissance left behind a large amount of technical drawings, reflecting the superbly wide interests the Renaissance Homo universalis (=polymath) pursued - The development of the law of the linear in perspectives (from Renaissance arts) allowed mechanisms to be depicted realistically in engineering drawings - The idea of putting design ideas into drawings before actually building them, even if it wasn’t possible to build them at that time (pretty evident in the many sketches & drawings Da Vinci left behind). - The development of the printing system that uses the movable type, leading to new ways in printing books, letter & font casting in clay & soft metal. - Continued improvement in the construction of cathedrals, castles. There was an increase in the understanding of the structures of arches, pillars and walls. Also, the development of flying buttresses allowed the creation of Gothic cathedrals, in addition to the Romanesque ones.

Italian Engineers of the Renaissance[edit | edit source]

A.Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) B.Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1439-1501) C.Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

The Engineer as a Warrior[edit | edit source]

The Trace italienne[edit | edit source]

A.Basic Principles[edit | edit source]

- Developed during the gunpowder era where cannons came into being. First seen during the mid 15th century AKA The “Star Fort”! (like the ones you get via Great Generals in Civ5) Several “layers” of stars laid atop one another. - Passive ring shaped forts proved vulnerable to cannon fire and undermining efforts thus made the Trace italienne composed of many triangular bastions layered to cover one-another, and a ditch. - Defensive walls were lower and thicker, and the ditches were widened so that opposing infantry can’t climb the lower walls easily, and would be more vulnerable to fire

B.Elements[edit | edit source]

- Built from earth and brick, since brick doesn’t shatter to cannonballs as stone does. - Allowed much greater defensive coverage; cannon fire could criss-cross and cover a many more directions - Employed more heavily throughout Europe for the next 3 centuries. - As more maneuverable siege cannons came into being, the response from military engineers was to arrange for the walls to be fronted by earthen slopes so that they wouldn’t be attacked by destructive cannon fire. - Walls topped off with earthen banks that would dissipate the force from a cannon shot. - Previous fort designs allowed for dead zones: areas that were safe from direct defensive cannon fire. The star shapes eliminated much of this, and allowed for more interlocking fields of fire

Siege warfare in the 17th and 18th centuries[edit | edit source]

A. Principles and Motivations[edit | edit source]

- A siege occurs when an attacker encounters a city or fortress that cannot be easily taken by coup de main and refuses to surrender. - Surrounding a target and cutting off reinforcements, escape routes and supplies (i.e. the ‘investment’ technique) - Sieges can be decided by starvation, thirst, disease : can affect either the attacker or defender. - However, cannons were used in the 17th century that could demolish walls, forts were soon built to withstand cannon fire as mentioned previous, thus an attacking army would surround a town/fort & built temporary fortifications around it to cut off supplies & reinforcements/sallies

B. Progress of a Typical Siege[edit | edit source]

- (Gonna repeat some points here) An attacking army surrounds a town/fort & demands its surrender. - If they don’t comply, the town/fort would be surrounded to cut off help, etc. - Attackers would build length of trenches to parallel the defences (aka the ‘First Parallel’), just out of range of the defensive artillery. - They would then dig a trench (aka a ‘Forward’) towards the town in a zigzag pattern so that it cannot be enfiladed by defending fire. - Once within artillery range, another parallel (aka ‘Second Parallel’) trench would be dug with gun emplacements. This technique is known as entrenchment. - This can be repeated with more zigzag & parallel trenches until guns were close enough to breach the fort & to allow the forlorn hope (=the front lines) to get close enough to exploit the breach. - After each step, the besiegers would ask the defenders to surrender.

Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban (1633-1707)[edit | edit source]

A.Early Career and Training[edit | edit source]

-Education was minimal -Learned everything on the battlefield, military engineers -Climbed the ladders and ended up as Marshall of France with a great reputation -French friends and enemies thought that Vauban was a great man -Historians who hate French figures still appreciate Vauban as a great man -Call him a true patriot

B.Achievements and Reputation[edit | edit source]

-What made him? Attacked 50 fortresses -Modified a lot of fortresses -Not original with his plans, don’t have to be original to be effective and great, which is what his career suggests -Vauban picked up the parallels from the Turkish -Ricochet shot: trademark -Ring Bayonet: so you can shoot and stab at the same time -Calculated how much cannons and supplies per garrison and unit -Calculated 25% of people would be hiding in a siege (realistic/employs rationality)

C.Not particularly original – a great systematizer[edit | edit source]

D.Character and Ideas[edit | edit source]

-A lot of his techniques were copied -Vauban caused: gradually engineers demand respect from their military units, Royals considered engineers civilians, Vauban pushed respect for military engineers -French engineers displaced the Italian engineers and became known as the best engineers -Spoke back to the King (Louis the 14th) -Left templates for tenders, brought dimensions and standardization -“Spill less blood, spill more power” -Had idea, heroism is stupid, the shovel is more power than the sword, rational attitude towards warfare, make other guy die for his country not you -Every soldier has Marshall’s Vauban in his knapsack -Vauban was not a huminatarian or compassionate figure, just efficient and rational, and said “its just stupid to get yourself killed” and was rational -Vauban thinks about the economy and society -Vauban thinks of a system of fortresses which support each other on the North East Plain instead of a one fort -Vauban was not an aggressive militant -Nobles did not have to pay tax because it was believed they pay their tax in blood initially because they were fighters during wars, Vauban thought this was unjust seeing as little noble blood was spilled on the field -Louis the 14th thought the economic idea of taxes was bad, tried to supress it

The Corps du génie (Corps of Military Engineering)[edit | edit source]

A. Transition from the freelance Renaissance artist-engineerto a member of an organization[edit | edit source]

The Corps du genie (Corps of Miltary Engineering) • Fortress engineers: specialization in fortress building, better educated, more technical background 33% nobel • Siege (and trench engineers): vauban started here...millitary background nobles but not much experience. 64% nobels rudimentary education

B. In 17th century French engineers displace Italians and increase in numbers[edit | edit source]

-Known for their war efforts, discussed prior under Vauban

C.Up to the end of the 17th century they are still fragmented into two groups under two separate ministries (Colbert and Louvois)[edit | edit source]

-Both Jean Baptiste Colbert and secretary of war François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois were interested in Vauban’s work to combine siege and fortress engineering

D.Department of fortifications 1691 (Vauban chief engineer)[edit | edit source]

-Depart of fortifications, 1691 -People who were fortress engineers are actually more educated and were appreciated more by Vauban due to his importance on fortifications (1/3) were nobles -Siege engineers were not well educated (more militant background) -Vauban wants to fuse them -Vauban starts to examine people for entrance into the department -1691, founded, 51% of commoners, Louis 14th was short on cash and made a lot of people become officers -Louis the 14th began to sell nobility to wealthy commoners wanted to stop the rise of the bourgeoisie

E.Evolution to a Corps royal du genie[edit | edit source]

- Louis the 16th, praised nobility and made people have to have 4 degrees of nobility, the counter revolution begins before the revolution, a lot of causes -Membership (%) of commoners in : 58% in 1692-1715, 1716-1747 55%; 1748-1777 43%; 1778-1791 25%,

The Engineer Goes To School[edit | edit source]

-Graduate of engineering schools: Carnot, Coulomb, school hard to get in -Many officers deserted during the French revolution, ⅓ of engineers desert (but engineers were most progressive, although they didn’t support the revolution, some may think so because they aren’t bound my tradition, they are more scientific, however, engineers are also fairly aristocratic)

The School and the Corps of Roads and Bridges[edit | edit source]

-The corps are those who really count: their job is to build roads and bridges. They belong to the department of finance (and engineers are part of the army) -School at Mezieres Monge: created science courses in physics and chemistry, theory wasn’t as advanced but the practical was ahead of its time. ex. Coulomb (end up being colonel in french army)

A. The approach and curriculum of Royal Military Engineering School at Mézières (founded 1748)[edit | edit source]

-Briefly mentioned in class, not much

B. École des ponts et chaussées in Paris (1747)[edit | edit source]

-Started as school for map and drawings (draft school) -People come in and is supervised by an engineer: Perronet (who is famous) -While students were there, they started to learn about engineers -No rigorous entrance exams but have some class separation -No need to be nobles -Had to take outside courses in math etc, but this is their own doing. -Inside school they are draftsman and designers, in summer, they are sent out to be an assistants and partake in practical learning. -No definite graduation date -Pass when Perronet says they are good and ready -Much less formal, more practical than military school

The French Revolution and Technical Education[edit | edit source]

A. Disruptions to Mézières and the Roads and Bridges school[edit | edit source]

-Disruptions became because some support the revolution, some don’t (many students are nobles) -War 1792: France was at war with the whole of Europe because aristocrats outside of France sees them as a threat > high war demand -Drafting of engineers, and even got drafting engineers from the work for Perronet ---- -Pictorial education is no longer possible

B. Foundation of the Central School of Public Works (1794)[edit | edit source]

-1794: things got bad with terror and stuff, so they found the Central School of Public Work -Abolished messier school of road and bridges and put them together, Monge is radical

The École Polytechnique[edit | edit source]

-1795 changed names to ecole poletechnique -Nothing required to enter the school - At some point banned nobles, must have hate of aristocracy required (and certified) to get in to other schools, complete different from messier -There was one kind of engineer that should be able to do everything, hence the name POLY technique (didn’t really work out in the long run)

A. Concours and financial support for students[edit | edit source]

-Concours: competitive entrance exam (ranking cut) -Mezieres had to pay fees, not at ecole polytechnique which you even get salary, there was a food ration, they received military ration. -Examination centers set up throughout France.

B. Initial Curriculum[edit | edit source]

-Initial curriculum followed messier -First years general (for example, trains visualization), then there is a year for architecture and public works and last year for fortification -Students are forced into labs to do the works themselves, instead of the Professor doing it they have handouts and problem sessions, tutorials, lectures..very similar to today -Examiners are also Laplace, Fourier etc. C. Evolution of the School and the Curriculum -Lots of rivalry over engineering schools, fight to take over jobs...ex. harbors should be under military engineers, not civilian engineers, curriculum cut to 2 years and later they sent to specialization school ex. school of road and bridges, mining school, artillery schools, geographical/drafting school. -Theatre school followed -Eventually there are no fees and you also get salary. but then you are bound to be there for a few years

D. The Polytechnician Then and Now[edit | edit source]

-Polytechniciens are elitest, pride, preferred -L’ecole polytechnique: 34th top university in the world (tied with UBC, ahead of UofT, behind McGill (19th)) and is now 62nd university, UofT higher now. -29th in engineering schools -Woman first admitted in 1972, becoming more democratized -Picture of students marching down chanze lize in France (celebrating) in their uniforms. -Woman uniform worked on by pierre cardin -1st woman admitted (Anne Chopinnet): she held 1st position, amazing career afterwards, went into mining (most prestigious in France) and therefore ran the petroleum industry -Polytechnique (govt institution not a part of the university) copied as a model for engineering schools -Concun: competitive exam needed to get into polytechnique which was much harder to get in than universities that only needed a high school diploma Polytechniques/universities : were against the gov’t, didn’t like the kings, the revolution or Napoleon (who brought back unis after they had been wiped off for a while) -Les grandes ecoles: school of mines, bridges etc (no connection to unis) -Chem eng schools, elec eng schools. (free standing insitutions, not connected to unis)

Other schools[edit | edit source]

A. The Écoles d’Arts et Métiers (lit. Arts and Crafts)[edit | edit source]

-Made by Napoleon -Practical people (not as theoretical as polytechniques): provided the sergeants of industry and still exists in France

B. The École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures (1829)[edit | edit source]

C. The Polytechnical Model[edit | edit source]

-Separate from uni (still the case today) -Prestigious school, great professors, etc

D. The Polytechnical Model Outside France[edit | edit source]

TU- technical highschools/uni

British Civil Engineers[edit | edit source]

The English Model[edit | edit source]

A. General Conditions[edit | edit source]

- Less powerful state section than France, In France, Paris decided everything and was controlling, things are very organized and bureaucratized -In England, they didn’t care about education: no prestige for school, English respect for practicality (not polytechnic which was all theory)

B. Engineering Education in England in the 18c and 19c (lasts into the 20c)[edit | edit source]

-James Brindley (1716-1772) : From tutorial -James Watt (1736-1819) : was a civil engineer, was literate, more educated than Brindley, improved steam engine and developed separate condenser, Horse power units, etc. -Thomas Telfort (1757 – 1834): made canals and bridges -All die famous and rich. -John Rennie (1761-1821): father of engineers (?) worked for James Warwick designed London Bridge

C. The “Civil” Engineer[edit | edit source]

-Engineer = One who manages engines, one who manages artillery army (military sense) -Civil = non military purpose, don’t wear uniforms, don’t go to war, don’t build/break fortresses, he is an independent entrepreneur; gets his money from clients & contracts [private] -John Grande was the first to call himself a civil engineer but the person who first brought the idea out was John Smeaton (1724-1794): from Leeds, son of rich lawyer, became a good instrument maker (required good mathematical skills), builds a famous lighthouse, member of the royal society (for scientists), got a medal for working on the efficiency of water wheels. -Thomas Newcomen (1712) : steam engine (not efficient but James Watt made it 3 times as efficient) -Smeaton made it twice as more efficient by observation and statistics.

D. The “Society of Civil Engineers”[edit | edit source]

-After his death, it was named Smeatonium society of civil engineers -Networking and lobbying event: where people discussed upcoming projects -Membership requirements: real civil engineers, men of science and gentlemen of rank and fortune, -Compared to the French, English had no schools, more practical than theoretical, All self-driven & no formal organization. -Duke of Bridgewater built a canal on river erwell (goes along the contour) “aqueduct” -The Barton Aqueduct

Engineers and the Industrial Revolution[edit | edit source]

- The term “civil” engineer is recent – came at the end of 18th century

A. British Industrial Revolution (1760-1830)[edit | edit source]

- People argue that the only thing achieved out of industrial revolution = Mechanization of human work (machines – steam engines etc), Quantum jump in sophistication of machines. - New sources of energy discovered: fossil fuel age with the industrial revolution (Britain used coal since Roman times, even used in China: so fossil fuels were used before industrial rev. but not to the extent that they were used at after the industrial rev) - Anthroposine – (Human) 2 legged creature that feeds on mother nature is now affecting biosphere due to discovery of new energy. - Relation b/w Mechanization and new source of energy (after rev. most machines are powered by steam engines) - Mumford talks about Eotechnic phase [renewable energy] and Paleotechnic phase [non renewable energy] in industrial rev … then Neotechnic age [electricity – “clean” energy] – flawed argument - Potash used to make gun powder - Also arguable that revolution is instant: whereas this was over a lifetime -Sanford Fleming created standard time zones

B. Engineers become heroes of the Industrial Revolution[edit | edit source]

-Materials extraction aren’t always efficient: ex. Potassium from burning trees, Iron from carbon which is from coal -Factory system: Change in manufacturing. ex. Venecian Arsenal: put workers under one roof to improve efficiency. Most visible in textile industry. Breaks the chronological order (chronological neurosis: creates an industrial discipline). -New kinds of technologies: ex. bridgewater canals. Whole network of canals. Side note: most people ignore infrastructure technology and take them for granted. Ex. railway. SF and time. -So engineers played a big role during the industrial revolution -Famous engineers had prestige -There was a memorial for James Watt -Renny was made a knight -Smiles was a manager of a railway, but he did homework to study what the engineers were doing -These were to the people who are conquering nature: connects people and industries (connects towns) -Smiles claim British engineers are productive individuals who do things themselves without asking from help from the government, like the French.

C. Other Institutions of Technical Education in England: The Mechanics' Institutes[edit | edit source]

- Movement caught on quickly: In US Mechanical institutes used to ascend socially, which is “American” -Movement got popular but slowly transformed: lower class people join the institutes, have libraries, lies towards literature as well, Toronto mechanic institutes later become libraries

North American Engineers[edit | edit source]

Early Colonial Engineering[edit | edit source]

A. Frontier Forts are regression and adaptation to local conditions[edit | edit source]

- No need for something too fancy. -Fortress in Newfoundland Louisburg, expensive fort in vauban style, attacked 1745 and 1758 -1745: more soldiers died from sickness 43 days 1758: the war that they kicked out the french, the British demolished the fort (rebuilt in Trudeau’s time) -Taken both times, but it was the only fort in the area -Forts are supposed to be able to hold to buy time, not defend forever -Lieutenant Colonel John By (1779-1836) ~19th century person British engineer who created Rideau Canal in 5 years made in 1831, over budget: cost ~1mn pounds, Canal from Ottawa to… - By’s construction required lots of dams and was prone to disease, By wanted to make it with solid, durable conditions with less attention to cost

B. More important fortresses follow European models (sometimes mismatch with North American conditions)[edit | edit source]

C. Underdeveloped America[edit | edit source]

Beginnings of Independent North American Engineering[edit | edit source]

A. European Origins of West Point Military Academy (1802)[edit | edit source]

-West Point Military Academy: inspired by polytechnique. -First director was Williams, grandnephew of Benjamin Franklin -European model, used French text, French was compulsory

B. Erie Canal (1817-1825)[edit | edit source]

-A great work cite for practical experience - It’s a school in a British sense of the word. -New York was able to overtake Philadelphia as an important city because of this canal – -Built by Jarvis, which climbed the ranks: Axe man> Rod man > Surveyor> Designing locks and later worked on railroad engineering. -So we have American stream on west point, British on Erie Canel. -Rensselaer Polytechnique institute (1824): German model, but modeled on polytechnique, It didn’t reach a high level of theory -Stability, durability is more important than commercial/money which is more of a concern to US engineers, like those at West Point (CHK) -Today west point is more like a military college -Civil engineers at Erie: they have dislikes/rivalry and they are interested in money

C. The Contrast between Military and Civil Engineering in Antebellum America[edit | edit source]

Canadian (British North American) Engineering[edit | edit source]

A. Gzowski, Keefer, and Shanlys (1840s to 1880s)[edit | edit source]

-Sir Gzowki (1813-1898), refugee from Russia due to failed Polish uprising, was a railbuilder -Thomas Keefer (1871-1915), author of The philosophy of Railroads, tried to raise funds for building railroads in Canada by arguing they improve civilization, -Walter(1819-1899) and Frank(1820-1882) were Anglo Irish immigrants, studied Engineering in British apprenticeship method, Walter more successful than Frank, engineer put Worksmanship before economy -Sir Sanford Fleming (1827-1915)from Scotland, Intercolonial railway (1872-1876), connected Maritimes to Quebec

American Engineers at Mid-Century[edit | edit source]

A. Early “University Engineers”[edit | edit source]

-Yale Sheffield School, first Phd in engineers -Gibbs first Phd in Chem Eng -This kind of education pioneered by Germany -Concepts of practical stance of liberal arts, universities not supported by administration

B. Civil Engineers (Field Culture)[edit | edit source]

-Less rural backgrounds, came from middle class -Cosmipolitan idea: worked anywhere in the world -Progressive, public responsibility, defend anatomy of profession -Saw engineers as creators of civilization -Saw that technology and democracy thrive on each other -Democracy concerned with what is good for everyone, thus has symbiotic relationship with technology -Set up American Society of Civil Engineers, group of gentlemen who defended their status and goals for society

Engineering Education in the late 19c US[edit | edit source]

A. The Morrill Land Grant Act 1862[edit | edit source]

-Founded to promote mechanics and opportunities -Accessible to all, especially sons of “toil” -Schools such as Cormell started by this -Federally awarded land given to states to start schools

B. “Shop culture” and “school culture” among American Engineers[edit | edit source]

-As opposed to apprenticeship shop culture -College education made cheaper by MLGA -Up to 1400 new engineers by WW1 -Engineering faculties started becoming science faculties because of expansion of theoretical analysis

Taylorism[edit | edit source]

Life, Character, and Background of F.W. Taylor (1856-1915)[edit | edit source]

-Feels that resources are unlimited…..however, later brings about the conservationism: want to use resources efficiently

Steps in Taylorism:[edit | edit source]

1) Identify the person who is most efficient at their job 2) Study what the person is doing: tools/how they do their work. 3) Time how long each step takes with a stopwatch (key to Taylor’s method) 4) Eliminate false movements 5) Collect movements into a series the best movements and best implements (reforming whole process)

A. American Upper Class[edit | edit source]

B. Well-educated, good engineering training in the “shop culture”[edit | edit source]

-Taylor’s ideology: came from progressivism. He is a mechanical engineer in a shop culture. society is a collection of individuals (not classes or group like Marx) Taylor sees this individualism creates friction, social chaos - He also think there is a middle class motivation, the worker wants/incentivised only production and money -Dissociation of working from thinking, worker should not think and follow, the “efficiency expert” must be separate, people who are detached from the process could be more objective, so they should be thinking, not the person in the process

Context: Crisis in American Society and Growth of Rapid American Industry[edit | edit source]

-American is a growing industrial country, replacing Britain -No more frontier in American culture: move west if you don’t like it.

A. Increasing wealth and population and social stratification[edit | edit source]

B. Growth of the size of the firm and Intense Competition among firms[edit | edit source]

C. Labour strife[edit | edit source]

- Railroad: exploitative, abusing rights by congress etc. -Louis Brandite sees railways are inefficient, if they follow scientific management, they would be more efficient and not leave a burden to society

D. Transitional period in American industry and in the American engineering profession[edit | edit source]

E. Progressivism in American Politics[edit | edit source]

-Progressivism: Middle class phenomenon, impatience with corruption and against immigration (they see immigrants they dont uphold values), afraid of power of big money. fearful of laborers and working class. Breaking down of big trust. -Efficiency in politics: want city engineer, don’t want connections people, but want people who are more democratic in their attitudes.

Taylor’s Ideas and Solutions[edit | edit source]

Taylor received success -Smidth: loading pig iron -Taylor picked Smidth because he wasn’t smart, and was one of the best in the crew -Taylor was able to achieve productivity up to 48 tons. -Taylor succeeds in increasing efficiency in a task that doesn’t seem to do much. -This is different than people picking their own method of working, they are not under supervision of engineers

-Management how becomes a helper/pal - Manager must cooperate with worker (not Marxist, no separation of classes) -Idea is that Taylor is against the class concept of society -Equal responsibility of management and workmen -Management does work that they are better at in comparison by workmen - Taylor claims that management didn’t know what the workers are doing (=soldiering=goofing ) and get cheated/ripped off -So Taylor claims that management must make this more clear and actively participate in the process.

Taylor’s focus is on worker need development in whole plant. Look at system as a whole. Schedule work, cost accounting, purchasing procedures, economic rewards, layout of working space, standardized procedures (in job descriptions), fragmented/specialization (one person does tool sharpening for everyone instead of everyone stopping and doing their own). >job descriptions: specified different weight on sand on shoval, size of shoval, etc. Taylor actually invented different types of shovels for each material >ex. staples in a box: specified equipment, scale, pre-assembled boxes,, close flaps on box, number of boxes per minute Everything is quantified and “scientised”,

Functional foremanship: dividing managerial responsibilities. Foreman was no longer disciplinarian-he is a teacher/educator then another (divide up management/managerial tasks as well as laboring task, no longer Napoleon’s unity of command)

Resistance to Taylor:[edit | edit source]

o From the workers – they had to produce more, and get more profits – unfair share of these profits. Physically challenging, no input in the job etc. Schmidt worked for taylor and became an alcoholic b/c of the stress etc after he stopped working for him. o Taylor not susceptible to intimidation o Taylorism banned in military until late 1940s. o Opposition from management as well (esp. 1901 – 1917) o Taylor is very anti-Marxist. – we are all individuals, our class doesn’t matter and we should cooperate (not struggle, like Marxist thinks) – produce more in a peaceful manner. o Prosperity b/c of efficiency.

Some disciples and modifiers[edit | edit source]

o Carl Barth. Most orthodox and traditional of the disciples in the fold. Technically driven. o Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Cinematic time and motion studies. (Gilbreths 2 children wrote Cheaper by the Dozen, about how they were raised) – Cinematic form of Taylorism – filming something to observe it and improve it. o Frank not educated, Lillian probably wrote all the articles b/c she was an academic (PhD) o Therblig – gilberth backwards – it was his scientific unit. o Henry Laurence Gantt – interested in broader social and political implications of Taylorism with a decidedly radical tinge. Typewriter video – women have slimmer hands therefore are faster typers.. etc Further developments and modifications o Taylorism is not something static. o There was absenteeism, inefficiency, alcoholism, and sabotage. o Elton Mayo (1880-1949), Harvard psychologist and industrial sociologist in the 1920s. Founder of Human Relations Movement. Looks at science but from human point of view, not natures point of view. o Taylorism is probably dead, but this engineering approach to work was a fundamental inspiration of modern managerial techniques

Saint-Simon & Comte[edit | edit source]

Claude-Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825)[edit | edit source]

A. Early life and career & B. Intellectual Profile[edit | edit source]

- French philosopher -Liberal, volunteered to fight British in American War -Made money selling stuff from French Revolution -Sponsored many people to Ecole de Polytechnique -Had parties for faculty to learn about science -Faculty thought he was not a scientist but crazy -He was sort of one of the Enlightenment thinkers: science was a building block for raising standards, rejected slavery, torture and a lot of modern ideas -He thought revolution would bring about Enlightenment for everyone -He thought society that was destroyed by the Revolution was good, but left a vacuum -He thought captains of industry should be in charge and guided by science -Some kind of new ethical structure needed, should be guided by scientists -Workers should be shown love but not incharge -Rejects Christianity -Many engineers (polytechnicians) were created with his ideas

C. Proposal for a regenerated society[edit | edit source]

-There are three classes: workers should get decent living standards, be provided for, and be at the bottom; scientists should be educated and smart; Industrialists and Bankers should follow advice of the scientists; artists were also important as the cement in society

D. The Followers: The Saint-Simonians[edit | edit source]

-After his death in 1825, polytechnicians continued his work and promoted Saint Simon’s religion ideas -The Saint Simonians were led by Enfantin -Two principles: Male & Female Relationship: tender, love, care, emotion -Preached working classes to rise up -Believed in intellectual credit and that there should be no obstacles to educating smart people -Spread internationally to the point they made the government worried -Did not reach the popularity of Marxism -Promoted love among societies -Once died down, members offered positions in government Enfantin was given a job as a railway administrator

E. Never successful directly but left an indirect legacy in French technocratic thought[edit | edit source]

-Gave us the idea we should struggle for eutopia and not accept current society -Privileges those who are smart

Auguste Comte (1798-1857)[edit | edit source]

A. Early Life and Character[edit | edit source]

-Kicked out of polytechnique for political thinking -Rigid and dogmatic, believed in intellectual progression -Had nervous breakdown in youth -Believed in the speciality of sciences

B. Positivism[edit | edit source]

-Theories should be based on observable facts, make general observation philosophy that is useful in society not just science

C. The Hierarchy of the Sciences[edit | edit source]

-1)Math -2)Astronomy -3)Physics -4)Chemistry -5)Biology -6)Sociology -Comte didn’t believe in Astrophysics -Was an experimental scientist, not the most precise experiments at the time due to given tools

D. The Law of the Three Stages[edit | edit source]

-Need a kind of religion -Society as a whole develops through these Three stages, explains how societies explain things surrounding them as they develop: Theological (deities), Metaphysical/Critical (overthrows proceeding phase, more abstract thinking, not a belief in a personal God that is concrete, but a force which is God that guides them), Positive/Scientific (rational thinking, scientific explanation)

E. Comte and the Social Order & F. Influence[edit | edit source]

-Love is the main principle -Progress on Social Order: 13month calendar -1st month Moses, represented ancient theories

Veblen & Technocracy[edit | edit source]

Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929)[edit | edit source]

A. Early Life and Education[edit | edit source]

-Son of a farmer -Went to college -Taught himself from extensive reading -Got Doctorate at Yale

B. Academic Career[edit | edit source]

-Not successful academic career -Does not stay long at university, considered a radical -Agnostic at a time people had to be Christians -Bad teacher, mumbled in monotone -Pioneering economist and sociologist -Many colleagues thought he was a genius

C. Publications[edit | edit source]

- Theory of the class (detailed description of snobiness): the more successful, the more lazy -Theory of business enterprise (in 1880’s massive amount of attacks on corporations, who he saw had only their interests at heart) , theory under capitalists, themes of waste and inefficiency to be discarded as well as immoral and unjust -Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution: intelligently sarcastic

Veblen’s ideas[edit | edit source]

A. The theory of “instincts”[edit | edit source]

-Believed humanity passed through phases -Didn’t believe it would be linear improvement to scientific paradise -Believed Vikings not bloody but were driven by production unlike scholars -Two important instincts -It satisfied tendencies of human to do things -Science was imported and prestigious, Industrial Revolution strengthened Sprit of the Workmanship -Spirit of Workmanship was growing in Japan and Germany but Sportsmanship would remain dominant -Japanese & Germans would try to harness the Spirit of the Workmanship into the military but would fail -Saint Simon’s argued two types of people were ontop, useless and useful, parallel to Sportman and Workman

B. The spirit of Sportsmanship[edit | edit source]

-Predatory instinct -Competitive -Valued -Not interested in productions but fruits of production -Militaristic -Hierarchal -Ceremonial -Religious

C. The spirit of Workmanship[edit | edit source]

-Creative -Specific -Rational -Laborious -Egalitarian -Irreligious

D. The Engineers and the Price System (1921)[edit | edit source]

-Veblen did not know many engineers -Engineers would be radical and troops of radical change -Embodied Spirit of the Workman -Not many read this book -He thought one day revolution would come -Written as series of articles after WWI -Accused leaders of industry sabotaging industry and did not want efficiency -As industry became more advanced, engineers became what he stated as general workers -Called for Soviet of Technicians to takeover -He thought engineers would lead revolution -Real industrial power lies with the engineers -Growth of Technical knowledge would dislike this waste -People went on to develop Technocracy

After Veblen[edit | edit source]

A. Technocracy: the name and the thing[edit | edit source]

-Technocracy: Movement in the US -The government or control of society by an elite of technical experts -Specialists in a field of technology: more rational, more neutral, more enlightened, more professional -Remove power from politicians and let the engineers be incharge -Technocrats will eliminate scientists, most politics can be reduced to technical questions

B. The Technical Alliance and Howard Scott (1890-1970)[edit | edit source]

- Howard claimed he was an engineer; brilliant CV, etc. but he was just a loud mouth, outbursts of temper, alienated people, dictorial, also he was not actually an engineer -Theodore Roosevelt preaches the convention of efficiencies and wanted technologies - American obsession with efficiency; eliminate waste -Parliamentry democracy led nowhere -Real democracy is people utilizing resources efficiently and reaping benefits from it

C. Technocracy Inc.[edit | edit source]

-Social credit: print out new money to get rid of depression Vs. energy vouchers instead of money

D. Technocracy’s failure[edit | edit source]

-Split between Scott’s people and Roudeshire’s people. -At the deepest level of depression, *name was elected, wanted to destroy capitalism, but infact he saved it by bringing in things like social security. -E.g. in; M King Hubbord: geologist, predicted “peak oil” which was correct for “land” only. -Bill gates interview: Bill Gates promotes idea of technocracy; one best way (choose b/w bad, or worst) using knowledge and numeric, introduce a third person etc, then hopes democracy comes through.

Engineering Education at UofT[edit | edit source]

Canadian Education in the 19th Century[edit | edit source]

A. Rudimentary in French Canada B. Somewhat more available in English 2. The beginnings of higher technical education in Canada A. The growing importance of infrastructure projects B. First lectures in Engineering at UNB (1854) 3.Engineering at the University of Toronto A. Attempt to create of chair of engineering at University College in 1851 B. Ontario government creates a College of Technology (1871) C. The College of Technology becomes the Ontario School of Practical Science (1873) D. John Galbraith (1846-1914) E. The University of Toronto federates (1887) F. The Galbraith School (1889-1919)

Canadian schools- 1851 University College[edit | edit source]

- Lot of students but only two profs 1871 College of Technology - no connection with university college, funded by Ontario government - James Loudan (spelling may be wrong) – first U of t prof - Taught math, physics, wanted better infrastructure (labs) - He suggested a new building with facilities – School of Practical Science (Old Skule) (1873) - SPS – applied sciences were taught. University college provided only teachers but facilities provided by government - SPS – education for practical problems – hands on labs and drafting . catering to the needs of the masonry of Canada. But it was not an engineering school. SPS students took some courses in UC and vice versa. John Galbraith (1846-1914) - Former student of Laudan - Graduated in mathematics from UC - Became a part of ICE – prestigious society of civil engineers (1880) - ICE – it was a notable credential for the engineers , certain practical experience and reputation was required to be a part of ICE. Discussed the standardization and normalization of engineering education - He became the first engineering prof at SPS. - SPS gave 3 yrs of diploma in engineering – civil, mech, mining (40 hrs of lectures and labs), expected to learn german and French to be able to read foreign documents - Chemical, architecture and electrical were also included - Galbraith founded the faculty of engineering at SPS in 1906 when SPS changed to Facult of Applied Science and Engineering - It then became a part of University of Toronto - Other colleges also merged into U of T – Trinity, Victoria - At that time there were 1200 Arts and Science students, 1650 (medicine) and 500 engineering students - Galbraith influence persists till 1919 - Increasing differentiation between different branches - Civil engineering – 3yrs study + 3yrs thesis - Some ppl say SPS lost its independence & individuality but Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering became an important part of U of T. Galbraith eventually became the principal. - Galbraith’s view of engineering education o University first step to engineering career o University is not supposed to have cutting edge technology. It should only teach students the established techniques that will help them in understanding the routine engineering practices. o Conservative way of thinking – faculty should teach not research - Then came J.C. McClellan (PHD in Physics), his views clashed with Galbraith - Much more modern way of thinking – he was a researcher, wanted students to produce something new, advanced knowledge and not just being competent on what is already there - Not just learn but promote research and knowledge - He did not approve some teachers who were accepted at Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering for that reason - The idea of research based engineering education which is the “engineering science” came after WW2

Kipling & the Iron Ring[edit | edit source]

Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936)[edit | edit source]

A. Biography[edit | edit source]

-Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) -His father was sculptor -Born in India, Bombay -Sent to England, to suffer colonial schools -Journalist in India/Pakistan -First English Speaking Author to get Nobel Prize for literature

B. Attitudes and Philosophy of Life[edit | edit source]

-Great believer in craftsmenship, artistry, in the material sense -Work is a burden that should be greatly assumed with pride, with regards to special skill engineers not so much the laborer -Kipling’s racism was mixed with a respect for the native people of India -More important pillars of the empire are soldiers, magistrates, and engineers -Imperialists were suppose to bring order to nature -Thought to be a bad writer by some, or wrote great poetry by “accident”

Kipling and the Iron Ring[edit | edit source]

A. Kipling and Canada[edit | edit source]

-Visted Canada twice -Welcomed as a celebrity -Felt Canada is a positive aspect of the empire -Felt the Imperial power should not exert too much control over colonies like Canada and they should self govern -Married an American, hated them though

B. Kipling and Engineers[edit | edit source]

-His heroes are the skilled laborers, mechanics and engineers -On the backs of these people, the empire rest, he believed

C. Kipling and T.E.H. Haultain (1869-1961)[edit | edit source]

-Haultain(1869-1961) is an Anglo-Indian, approached Kipling, successful mining engineer, great international career, came back to UofT to teach, adored by a lot of his students, felt doctors and lawyers have a higher advantage, wanted to raise the prestige/status of engineers, felt no professional identity or no tribal soul was among engineers, engineers have segregated ourselves because we have been so busy with our work, no sense of community -Haultain wrote to Kipling to make a ceremony and set up a ceremony -First one in Montreal 1925 -Administered by prominent working engineers, ideal -Haultain did not want ceremony to be a university thing, not administered by faculty

D. The Iron Ring[edit | edit source]

-Rough piece of jewellery -Wanted it to catch on in the entire Empire -Did not spread, is a Canadian thing, Americans have recently tried to copy -Henry Petroski, an American who promoted Americans should take ceremony as well, but it brings a sense of social solidarity -In some ways, the Iron Ring is an artifact of a bygone era -Iron Ring does not represent technology of computers -Reminder of late 19th and early 20th century engineering -Respect of Industrialism started to decline in the late 19th century -Kipling “once you get to be successful because of the work you are done, you send them to fancy schools and they turn their backs on the culture that put them there”, The decline of Industrialism